Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
A test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessment applications, such as TDS and TIDE.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is partially proficient, proficient, or advanced, etc.

D

Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district.
District Test Coordinator (DTC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.

E

Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
End of Life (EOL)
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grace Period Extension (GPE)
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to review previously answered questions upon resuming a test after expiration of the pause timer.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or, for students not assigned a grade, the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.

H

Hand Scoring (HS)
The process of manually scoring test items, often used for Writing tests.

I

Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

K

Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.

O

Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.

P

Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Search by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Site that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website that serves as a one-stop shop for educators involved in the online assessment process, providing access to CAI systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
Prompt
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question they must respond to.

R

Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reporting System
A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments.
Reset a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test).
Revert a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Internal Retrieval Number
A state-assigned unique school identifier.
School Test Coordinator (STC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox (Inbox)
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Student Identifier (SSID)
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Simulation (SIM)
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Speech-to-Text (STT)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher (TE)
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs)
Test items that take advantage of the computer-based environment to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator (TA)
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site and the Student Testing Site.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Impropriety
Any action or violation, whether deliberate or accidental, that would invalidate a test. Also known as a testing incident.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration and gathering of demographic data.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window (TW)
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.